September 4th, 2010
04:26 PM ET

Building standards make difference in quake deaths

A facade lies collapsed while another building burns Saturday morning in Christchurch, New Zealand.

Cars buried in rubble, roads ripped apart and gutted buildings are some of the startling images coming out of Christchurch, New Zealand, after a magnitude 7.0 earthquake.

But the country's system of standards and quality control for building construction may have saved the affected areas from the death and devastation endured by the people of Haiti after a 7.0 earthquake in January.

"It comes back to building standards and the quality of construction, the materials used and the quality control in the building process," said Andrew Charleson, an associate professor at the Victoria University of Wellington's School of Architecture.

The construction of every commercial and residential building in New Zealand has to be approved by the local city council in accordance with the national building code. Haiti's reputation for lax building regulation and weak code enforcement, on the other hand, left its citizens vulnerable to disaster, said Charleson, who is also director of the Earthquake Hazard Center, a nonprofit that focuses on earthquake-resistant construction in developing countries.

"In most cities in developing countries, people just build how they want to, and they build cheap and nasty and dangerous, and there's no building controls to force them to build to a higher standard," he said. "Buildings kill people because they haven't been built to high enough standards, and it's only an earthquake that exposes this reality."

Officials declared a state of emergency Saturday after the powerful predawn earthquake struck near Christchurch. Power was out in the northwest part of the city, while water and sewage services have been affected in several regions, the Christchurch Civil Defense Group said. Roughly 100 people were being treated for minor bumps and cuts and two people suffered more serious injuries.

New Zealand has seen its fair share of earthquakes – about 100 to 150 each year that are big enough to be felt, according to New Zealand's Insitute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences. It's the price of living on several active fault lines, including the Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600 kilometers up the spine of the South Island and forms the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates.

It took what most New Zealand residents refer to as "the last major earthquake" to set the country on its path toward current regulatory standards, Charleson said. The magnitude 7.8 Napier Earthquake of 1931 devastated the cities of Napier and Hastings, leaving at least 256 people dead and setting the art deco architectural design standard that remains in place today.

"That was the earthquake that started New Zealand down the track of better building standards. So this quake is going to be up there in terms of its influence on the resilience of New Zealand cities," Charleson said.

Of course, it helps that New Zealand has a first-world economy with a gross domestic product of US$115.3 billion, compared with Haiti, the poorest country in the western hemisphere with a GDP of US$11.99 billion. About 80 percent of Haitians live under the poverty line, according to 2009 estimates from the CIA's World Fact Book.

As a result of its seismic activity, the country has some of the world's top experts in earthquake engineering, many of whom come out of the University of Canterbury's engineering department. And, like most countries that experience frequent seismic activity, New Zealand has incorporated earthquake design principles into its building code.

"We've got a really robust building control system which very strongly recognizes seismic risks and takes those into account," said Graeme McIndoe, a Wellington-based architect and urban designer who recently served as a consultant to the New Zealand government on its Urban Technical Advisory Group.

The key is to construct buildings out of material that's "ductile," or the opposite of brittle, so they won't suddenly crack and collapse during an earthquake, McIndoe said.

To achieve this goal, most residential housing tends to be made of light timber frames that are inherently ductile and stand up to force, he said. Commercial buildings consist mainly of concrete reinforced with steel to deal with the tension.

In fact, New Zealand's strict building code has been criticized for being prohibitively expensive, McIndoe said.

"At the moment, the concerns are largely to do with housing affordability, that our controls are too rigorous and the processes too time-consuming, which add to the cost and complication," he said. "The requirements are not an issue. We know if we get the construction right, we have a chance at getting through an event without loss of life and minimal damage."

But it wasn't always that way. The images from Christchurch of toppled brick buildings and reports of at least one serious injury caused by a brick chimney that fell on a man evoke an era of less stringent building codes.

"Brick buildings are sturdy against small levels of earthquake, but once the earthquake gets to certain intensity and the bricks start to break, there's no steel reinforcement in the system to stop the building from being incredibly brittle," Charleson said. "It's that lack of reinforcement that's the problem. Unreinforced brick is incredibly hazardous."

Then there are the damaged roads and ruptured water and sewage pipes. The roads in Christchurch rest atop loose sand and peat that turns to mush during an earthquake, ejecting sand upward and disturbing pipes, Charleson said.

Such damage comes with the seismic territory, he said.

"We do have certain standards for roads, but the thing is roads have to go everywhere. We could design a road that wouldn't damage but would be prohibitively expensive, and it's relatively easy to repair roads. A society just couldn't afford to make roads damage free."

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soundoff (85 Responses)
  1. Pamela

    Living in Christchurch, New Zealand is a choice made by many. The place has so much to offer but no matter where you live there are risks: tornadoes, cyclones, long-term droughts – ours just happens to be earthquakes. We have disaster safety messages drummed into us from preschool age up. We have earthquake drills in schools and are encouraged to take personal responsibilty for our safety in preparation for the enevitable 'big one'. NZ has thousands of tremours every year but we can usually only feel 100 – 150 of them. The aftershocks we are now feeling are of the magnitude that we often think of as being quite a shake. We have all grown up knowing that 'the big one' (generated by a fault in the Souther Alps) is only a matter of time. We have spent millions 'earthquake strengthening' our older buildings – this is part of the cost of trying to maintain our heritage and designing new buildings with the same in mind. Our 60 year old brick and tile house stood up to Saturdays early morning wake-up call nicely and along with a good number of people we had torches, battery operated radios and other supplies we could reach for. Along with 150,000 other families we spent the early hours of the morning checking on families, neighbours, pets and assessing our properties. We are now in awe of our civic leaders. Our Mayor has done a wonderful job of leading the city through this (& it's been nice to see him out of a suit). Our emergency services and other city leaders have been tireless in their efforts to activate our well-thought out disaster plan. Our citizens have been volunteering to help others and we are reminded of why we have chosen to live in this city.

    It is humbling to see the messages of support from around the world (relatives in Auckland have even had USA gamers asking after family etc) and thanks to everyone who has shown concern. To those who have written on sites asking why this has even made news? I don't believe we've ever asked the same, but maybe that's because we realise that there is a world outside the borders of our own country! The coverage by the international media has been helpful to friends and family living around the world and for that we are greatful.

    We are doing ok – we are pitching in and supporting each other just as communities tend to do in situations such as this. (Just had another 2 aftershocks that rocked the house while sitting here typing). I am currently boiling another large pot of water to add to our drinking supply and my thoughts are with those in ChCh who are worse of than us.

    Your empathy is appreciated and while I hope no-one else has to go through anything like this, I know they will and Christchurch's thoughts and best wishes will be with them when it happens.

    September 5, 2010 at 10:51 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  2. Brook

    @James: Your comment
    "NZ was not always a first world country and placed their building codes in place well before it was seen as a first world country."

    At what stage in NZ's history was it not a 1st world country? Check your history before making comments like that please. At one stage in the 1950's NZ was ranked number 1 in world economically. You just another ignorant American?

    September 6, 2010 at 12:34 am | Report abuse | Reply
    • malia

      Re: "...........just another ignorant American?"

      This is untrue! How would you like it if an American used the stereotype, "...........just another chavinistic New Zealander?"
      :-(

      September 9, 2010 at 1:52 pm | Report abuse |
  3. philipe12

    Imagine an 9.0 quake hitting L.A. A few years ago, a 3.7 brougjht down a newlybuilt "quake proof" overpass, so I'm sure a 9.0 would make LA resemble Haiti

    September 6, 2010 at 10:09 am | Report abuse | Reply
  4. Darlene Yepko

    KIWIS you all hang in there and stay strong!GOD BLESS!D:-_Las Vegas,Nevada Labor Day 2010

    September 6, 2010 at 11:52 am | Report abuse | Reply
  5. sorry

    you guys found the worst possible pictures imaginable i live in chch and it is not THAT bad love the picture though! my power stoped when the earthquake hit then at 11am when i woke up again it was back on, my water never stoped kept drinking it straight from the tap. if you look on the other side of the street that photo was taken it was probably unharmed. we arnt lucky we are just well prepared.

    Do we get billions in aid like haiti? or are they just a special case? lol

    September 9, 2010 at 9:49 am | Report abuse | Reply
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    April 2, 2012 at 3:15 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  7. Kim Forrester

    That's harsh, Parrot – and I'm sure you didn't mean to come accross as a bigot. How about "Impoverished countries, with little money for food – let alone expensive building standards". As a NZ'er, I feel blessed to live in a society that can afford to take care of the "way we live", not just in actually staying alive on a day-to-day basis.

    September 4, 2010 at 9:50 am | Report abuse | Reply
  8. Stanleyrw

    Oh... He meant to come across as a bigot.
    ;)

    September 4, 2010 at 10:05 am | Report abuse | Reply
  9. Kim Forrester

    Yeah... I know Stanley. LOL! I thought I'd have a go at the "high road" : )

    September 4, 2010 at 10:15 am | Report abuse | Reply
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