Pythons wiping out mammals in Everglades, researchers say
A Burmese python in the Everglades swallowed a 76-pound deer last year.
January 31st, 2012
09:34 AM ET

Pythons wiping out mammals in Everglades, researchers say

Burmese pythons have eaten so many small mammals in Everglades National Park that populations of rabbits and foxes have disappeared and numbers of raccoons, opossums and bobcats have dropped as much as 99%, according to a report released Tuesday by researchers at Virginia Tech University, Davidson College and the U.S. Geological Survey.

“Pythons are wreaking havoc on one of America’s most beautiful, treasured, and naturally bountiful ecosystems,” said U.S. Geological Survey Director Marci McNutt in a statement.

The massive nonnative snakes have become an established species in the park in the past 11 years, after snakes that were once pets were released into the wild, according to the researchers. Park spokeswoman Linda Friar said earlier this month that there are tens of thousands of the snakes in the park.

In the remote southernmost regions of the 1.5 million-acre national park, researchers could find no marsh or cottontail rabbits or foxes. In those same areas, the raccoon population has declined 99.3%, the opossum population 98.9%, and the bobcat population 87.5%, the researchers reported.

Those animals are often found in the stomachs of Burmese pythons captured in the Everglades, the researchers said.

“The magnitude of these declines underscores the apparent incredible density of pythons in Everglades National Park,” said lead author Michael Dorcas, a biology professor at Davidson College in North Carolina.

To measure the population declines, researchers traveled more than 39,000 miles at night along roads in the park between 2003 and 2011, counting both live animals and road kills. Their data were compared to similar counts made along the same roads in 1996 and 1997, before the Burmese pythons had become an established species in the park.

In northern areas of the park, where python populations have not become established, the researchers found similar mammal numbers between their recent and older surveys. But in the area where the pythons have recently become established, the researches reported a noticeable decline in mammal numbers. They called for action before the pythons wipe out mammals in the entire park.

“Right now, the only hope to halt further python invasion into new areas is swift, decisive, and deliberate human action,” McNutt said.

Burmese pythons are native to southeast Asia, their range extending from southern China to the Malay Archipelago, according to the National Zoo. The snakes reach breeding age in four to five years and a female lays an average of 35 eggs during the spring breeding season, though one snake may lay up to 100. Burmese pythons can live as long as 30 years.

In their native range, the snakes are considered threatened and are hunted by humans for their meat and skins, according to the National Zoo.

They may grow up to 22 feet long but average about 16 feet. The snakes can swallow whole animals four or five times the size of their head. In the Everglades, the pythons have been found to eat deer and even alligators.

While the researchers are concerned about the fate of the raccoons and the opossums, they say they may not even be able to measure the snakes' effect on more elusive species.

“Such severe declines in easily seen mammals bode poorly for the many species of conservation concern that are more difficult to sample but that may also be vulnerable to python predation,” Dorcas said in a statement.

The researchers compared the proliferation of pythons in Florida to that of the brown tree snake on the Pacific island of Guam, where native species have disappeared since the introduction of the snakes. But they said it's happening faster in Florida.

“It took 30 years for the brown tree snake to be implicated in the nearly complete disappearance of mammals and birds on Guam; it has apparently taken only 11 years since pythons were recognized as being established in the Everglades for researchers to implicate pythons in the same kind of severe mammal declines,” U.S. Geological Survey scientist Robert Reed said in the report.

Earlier this month, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service instituted a ban on the importation of the Burmese python and three other nonnative constrictor snakes – the yellow anaconda and northern and southern African pythons.

But the researchers say they'll still need to do more.

“This severe decline in mammals is of significant concern to the overall health of the park’s large and complex ecosystem,” Everglades National Park Superintendent Dan Kimball said in a statement. “We will continue to enhance our efforts to control and manage the non-native python and to better understand the impacts on the park.”

The latest research was published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Other stories you might be interested in:

Hunting snakes in Florida

Tylenol-spiked mice air-dropped to kill snakes

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Filed under: Animals • Florida • Snakes
soundoff (456 Responses)
  1. jorline

    Time for another "Reality Show".

    Make python the "In" fashion over the next two years...should bring them under control.

    January 31, 2012 at 10:58 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  2. Kyle Overboard

    There are mother@#$%in' snakes in the mother@#$%&in' Glades!

    January 31, 2012 at 11:01 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  3. chieatfetus

    And to imagine there are irresponsible people that are abandoning their dogs & cats there just to suffer & die: if anyone can help there is an organization that is helping to rescue these animals...they are on facebook under '100+ Abandoned dogs of Everglades Florida' and they need donations to continue their work. please check it out, spread the word & help!

    January 31, 2012 at 11:03 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  4. Ddkins

    Teach Michael Vick how to bet on fight n snakes....

    January 31, 2012 at 11:04 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  5. WallStud

    "In their native range, the snakes are considered threatened and are hunted by humans for their meat and skins" ...import people from Southeast Asia into the United States, give them special Snake-Killing visas, and turn 'em loose on the Everglades!

    January 31, 2012 at 11:05 pm | Report abuse | Reply
    • Sathish

      Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.Thanks for your istnreet in our blog. Florida is in rough shape?.non-native fish, birds, inverts and mammals are doing very well at expense of natives; danger to people as well in some cases.Please let me know if you need any further information. Good luck, enjoy and please keep me posted.Best regards, Frank Indiviglio.

      February 13, 2012 at 11:57 pm | Report abuse |
  6. Tracy

    Put a bounty on them. Folks could use the money, and the Everglades will be well rid of them - and quickly, too.

    January 31, 2012 at 11:18 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  7. English Only

    Once they eat all other animals they will die out..... problem solved..

    January 31, 2012 at 11:30 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  8. fineart

    With the large numbers of unemployed in the everglades area, these folk should be hired by the state to kill the predators.
    A bounty of say $25.00 per snake seems reasonable. They would probably be eradicated within two years if you have two hundred full time hunters working around the clock. Get creative goverment.

    January 31, 2012 at 11:50 pm | Report abuse | Reply
  9. M.K.

    The warm weather will drive the damn snakes north and into the Chattahooche river and points north. Atlanta will have snakes to worry about along with the Falcons, and Hawks. The Braves are hopeless also and the snakes will not affect their sorry status.

    February 1, 2012 at 1:24 am | Report abuse | Reply
    • Rahf

      Just a few ibensporsirle people releasing pet snakes in to the wild.. and a couple of year later the hole ecosystem goes down.And not to mention the strict laws enforced upon the reptile community.Just goes to show that a few people can ruin it for everyone!

      February 11, 2012 at 10:35 pm | Report abuse |
  10. M.K.

    On second thought, send all of the Atlanta Sports players a snake twenty feet long to play with. They are not very good at their current ball playing endeavors.

    February 1, 2012 at 1:27 am | Report abuse | Reply
  11. M.K.

    Better yet, trade the Atlanta Sports teams to Florida for a sack full of Pythons.

    February 1, 2012 at 1:29 am | Report abuse | Reply
  12. Snake on a plate

    Time to add Burmese pythons to the menu so we humans can eat our mistakes! People have become so irresponsible these days...Self govern people before we all end up like George Orwell predicted..

    February 1, 2012 at 1:44 am | Report abuse | Reply
  13. what???

    TYLENOL being used to kill snakes??? hunh makes you wonder dont it??? snakes are in the bible as evil creatures anyone thinking this isnt just a snake problem???

    February 1, 2012 at 4:47 am | Report abuse | Reply
  14. what???

    and as wierd goes for wierder it gets stranger by the minute ...god has his ways turn to god to help solve the problem... may be only way...

    February 1, 2012 at 4:53 am | Report abuse | Reply
  15. ...

    This is what happens when an idiot with a mullet buys a python because it's cool and it looks so good with his black shirt, white sneakers and skin tight 501s. And the live rabbits scream so loud when they're cornered.

    Ask Michael Moore.

    February 1, 2012 at 6:18 am | Report abuse | Reply
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