May 10th, 2010
02:30 PM ET

Security Brief: Analysis: Exploring middle class jihadists

Afghan native Najibullah Zazi confessed to plotting to use weapons of mass destruction in a suicide bomb attack on the New York subway.

They are middle-class, some (by their home country's standards) even well-off. They are often college educated. They are settled in the United States or elsewhere in the West, far from the chaos or sectarian strife of their homelands; they are supposedly "assimilated." But somehow they cast off a life of comfort and drift toward extreme views before embracing political violence inspired by a sense of grievance or alienation.

It is a pattern seen time and again as terrorist plots have been uncovered in the United States. Afghan native Najibullah Zazi; Pakistani-American David Headley; Bryant Neal Vinas, the U.S.-born son of Latino immigrants; and Nigerian student Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, charged with trying to bring down an airliner over Detroit, Michigan, on December 25.

Zazi, who confessed to plotting to use weapons of mass destruction in a suicide bomb attack on the New York subway, was not well-off. But his family was well-established in the United States. His uncle in Denver, Colorado (with whom he lived for part of 2009), owns a spacious house in a pleasant suburb. Zazi attended High School in Flushing, New York, and although religious showed no signs of Islamist militancy as a student. He played billiards and basketball and later ran a coffee-cart business in Wall Street. His patrons described him as likeable, with a ready smile.

Vinas also had a comfortable middle-class upbringing in Long Island and was a baseball fanatic. Neighbors and friends describe him as a courteous, respectful student. Rita Desroches, a neighbor whose son was a good friend of Vinas', describes him as a "very sweet little guy. He could come here any time any minute. Just walk in. He was always welcome."

Abdulmutallab, the young Nigerian who is accused of trying to blow up a U.S. airliner, had a privileged upbringing. He attended one of West Africa's best schools: the British School in Lome. His father is a prominent banker in Nigeria; the family had an expensive apartment in London, England, where Abdulmutallab studied mechanical engineering. He traveled widely - to the United States and the Persian Gulf.  He has pleaded not guilty to charges including attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction.

Headley was born in Pakistan to a distinguished Pakistani diplomat and his American socialite wife. He had a privileged upbringing, attending an elite Pakistani military school and moving easily between the worlds of East and West. But his parents separated when he was a teenager, and he came to live in the U.S. with his mother. He dabbled in the drug trade, working as a courier of heroin from Pakistan to the U.S. until being apprehended in 1998. But even as he ran afoul of the law, there was no sign of Islamist militancy.

The investigation into Times Square suspect Faisal Shahzad's background reveals a similar story. His father is a retired senior Air Force officer in Pakistan, and the family home is in a comfortable suburb of Peshawar. For a while they lived in a two-story villa in Karachi when Shahzad's father was a senior official in the country's aviation authority. Shahzad was well-educated and attended colleges in Pakistan and Bridgeport University in Connecticut. His wife received a degree from the University of Colorado at Boulder and published several books. They purchased a new house in Shelton, Connecticut, and he commuted to work in New York's financial district. He was not a high earner or high performer, according to former employers, but he had a respectable, steady job and two children.

Even Maj. Nidal Hasan, the Fort Hood shooting suspect, would hardly be the "stereotypical" jihadist. He was a career soldier, born in Virginia, and a qualified (though apparently not very accomplished) psychiatrist.

Counterterrorism officials and experts on radicalization say that although there are differences in the backgrounds of these men, there are also striking similarities. In some way, they are affected by a change in their personal lives, grievances fed by a sense of injustice, a search for identity or belonging, a sense of alienation from their social environment. Often they are gullible and impressionable.

Vinas - the subject of a series this week on CNN - was traumatized by his parents' separation. CNN Terrorism Contributor Paul Cruickshank, who has spoken with his mother and sister at length, says: "There were tears and temper tantrums. He started quarreling with his sister, being disrespectful to his mother. He refused to accept his parents' separation."

Vinas, according to family and friends, was continually searching for a sense of identity and purpose in his life. After spending a few weeks in the U.S. Army and realizing that a military career was not for him, Vinas was searching for meaning in his life. He found it when he met the brother of a friend who was a Muslim. Vinas asked questions about Islam, and the brother gave him a Quran. Attending a mosque and embracing Islam with the passion of a convert gave him a sense of identity, and he began to believe the grievances of radical Muslims he encountered about U.S. policy overseas and especially in Afghanistan. He ended up booking himself on a flight to Lahore, Pakistan - his aim to join the jihad against U.S. forces over the border.

Carvin Desroches, one of Vinas' best friends growing up, says Vinas was the last of his friends he would have expected would do such a thing. Vinas' mother and sister say that if this happened to their son, they fear it will happen to another American family.

New York Police Department Intelligence Analysis chief Mitch Silber says Vinas "is almost a poster child for the process, the unremarkable nature of the people who might go through this process and frankly the potential to link up to al Qaeda and the danger that presents."

There appears to be no single moment when Zazi was radicalized and no obvious influence on him. But as with Shahzad, he ran into financial difficulties. One customer at his coffee cart told The New York Times that Zazi rebuked her one day. "He told me I could not be happy. He said: 'You people cannot be happy with your money.' "

Zazi filed for bankruptcy in March 2009 with credit card debts of more than $50,000. A few months later, he and two former school-friends left for Pakistan, where Zazi has admitted he received explosives training.

Headley's motivations remain obscure. He appears to have linked up with Pakistani militants while involved with drug trafficking. His dual nationality and ability to move in elite circles were a potent combination with an appetite for adventure and risk. But there were few signs of Islamic militancy, even when he confessed his role in planning the Mumbai attacks by Lashkar-e-Taiba and the plot to bomb the Danish newspaper that had published cartoons depicting the Prophet Mohammed.

Both Hasan and Abdulmutallab were conflicted over their relationships with women. Hasan's failure to find a wife who would wear a veil haunted him, but at the same time he is said to have visited a strip club near Fort Hood, Texas. Abdulmutallab agonized in his blog entries over finding a "modest" wife. And Anwar al-Awlaki, the Yemeni-American preacher whose views on jihad have influenced so many "home-grown" jihadists, was twice arrested in California for soliciting prostitutes.

Both Hasan and Abdulmutallab appear to have been alienated from their "decadent" surroundings and regarded Western society as morally "flawed."

But the alarming feature for intelligence officials in all these cases is that they defy the likely profile of a terrorist. There is no obvious red flag. These are people who appear to be "ordinary" members of society. They are U.S. citizens or resident aliens (who can therefore move in and out of the country with ease.) They do not belong to readily identifiable radical groups and have not spent their childhoods in radical madrassas.

Many of the home-grown jihadists became loners; family members have no hunch of what they are doing. (This has also been the case with young Somali-Americans who have suddenly disappeared from homes in Seattle, Washington, or Minneapolis, Minnesota, to fight a holy war in the Horn of Africa.). They are often influenced by radicalizers who stress that their family is less important than their duty to Allah. Hasan communicated with al-Awlaki; Abdulmutallab may have done so, too. (It is remarkable how many of the conspirators in the U.S. and UK have been influenced by al-Awlaki's religious justifications for jihad.)

These individuals are the opposite of the hardened fighters of groups like Hamas and Hezbollah and the Pakistani Taliban, who have grown up in poverty amid a collective sense of oppression. For example, Hezbollah was born among downtrodden Shiites in the slums of southern Beirut, Lebanon. The Pakistani Taliban, now allegedly linked to Shahzad's attempt, overwhelmingly comprises poorly educated and often illiterate young men from rural parts of northern Pakistan.

If the assertion by senior U.S. officials is correct, and Shahzad did link up with the Pakistani Taliban, the young madrassa-educated militants were teaching the bilingual MBA graduate how to bring terror to New York.

soundoff (283 Responses)
  1. jido

    Christians also attack other people in the name of God.

    President George Bush has claimed he was told by God to invade Iraq and attack Osama bin Laden's stronghold of Afghanistan as part of a divine mission to bring peace to the Middle East, security for Israel, and a state for the Palestinians.

    independent . co . uk

    May 10, 2010 at 11:29 pm | Report abuse |
  2. Rick Allegheny

    Does the CIA make them?

    May 10, 2010 at 11:31 pm | Report abuse |
  3. WhyDoYouCare

    Okay, dawn. Maybe, anyone with a foreign background, or who immigrated here, should have to leave the United States in the interest of "preserving culture (because American culture is superior? That sounds like Nazi rhetoric to me)".

    ...Oh, wait. That'd be everyone but Native Americans.

    Oh, wait, we can just get rid of Muslims! Get rid of the one religion, and we'll be fine.
    ...Oh wait, that's Nazi rhetoric, too.

    Dawn, please stop spewing bigotry and hatred. Thanks.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:31 pm | Report abuse |
  4. Angry American

    The nature of Islam is irrelevant. Religion, nationalism, etc. are all just convenient justifications after the fact, and are not the root cause of anything. The impulses that drive people on all sides in this "war" are as old as humanity. Who among us with a grievance has never wanted to simply strike against an easily identifiable enemy without consideration of the true consequences?

    May 10, 2010 at 11:32 pm | Report abuse |
  5. Louie

    Islam, Muslims, koran they all stink. Remove them and you remove most of the worlds problems, including the long lines at the airport daily.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:32 pm | Report abuse |
  6. WhyDoYouCare

    Dawn, the fact is that every Muslim does not control the actions of every other Muslim. That illusion that you have has got to end. You say 'stop the violence'...but we can only account for our own actions.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:33 pm | Report abuse |
  7. Barney

    One of Muhammad’s popular claims is that God commanded him to fight people until they become Muslims and carry out the ordinances of Islam. All Muslim scholars without exception agree on this. Muhammad said:

    "I have been ordered by God to fight with people till they bear testimony to the fact that there is no God but Allah and that Mohammed is his messenger, and that they establish prayer and pay Zakat (money). If they do it, their blood and their property are safe from me" (see Bukhari Vol. I, p. 13).

    Scholars understood this claim to mean the waging of offensive wars against unbelievers in order to force them to embrace Islam as individuals or communities. This is exactly what Muhammad himself did in carrying out God’s commandment to him.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:33 pm | Report abuse |
  8. WhyDoYouCare

    Louie, in the right time and place, you could very well have been a Nazi.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:34 pm | Report abuse |
  9. Stacy

    Please Visit:

    May 10, 2010 at 11:35 pm | Report abuse |
  10. Louie

    WhyDoYouCare, you are probably a terrorist in training.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:36 pm | Report abuse |
  11. Erron

    I wish everyone in the world would read this article. It points out exactly what most people don't realize, is that Islamic Jihad and Martyrdom are NOT products of "crazy psychopaths", poorly educated, or suppressed and desperate people, but rather anyone who reads the Qur'an and believes what it says. After all, it only claims to be the "perfect word of the creator of the universe" within it like a thousand times (exaggerating a little). This is the case for almost all Muslims, though many try to ignore mandates for personally killing infidels, but will support it when others do it. How, why, and when to kill the infidels (enemies of Allah).

    May 10, 2010 at 11:37 pm | Report abuse |
  12. dawn

    Muslim apologists make a huge deal about how "tolerant" and how "egalitarian" the religion of Islam is. This is propaganda.

    Besides, "tolerance" is an obnoxious and condescending term to those of us under the category of "people to be tolerated". Don't TOLERATE me. I don't want you to TOLERATE me. I want the same rights as eveybody else, under the law. That's all. One of my friends, who is gay, has the same response to the concept of "tolerance". It makes him NUTS. "I don't WANT you to 'tolerate' me. And I don't want to congratulate you on your 'tolerance' of me. Screw that!!"

    We have been fed a line of propaganda about how tolerant Islam is.

    Now it is quite a different thing ... what a religion SAYS about itself, and how it BEHAVES.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:37 pm | Report abuse |
  13. WhyDoYouCare

    Why would you say that? Have I said anything about wanting to hurt people who do not share my beliefs?

    No, I believe that was you, actually.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:37 pm | Report abuse |
  14. WhyDoYouCare

    You all define terrorist as someone who does not hold your beliefs, and wants to hurt you for it.

    Take a hard look in the mirror.

    Many of you exhibit the same symptom you condemn.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:39 pm | Report abuse |
  15. slozomby

    zebra, thats why they are blowing other muslims up in afghanistan, pakistan, uzbekistan, and iraq?

    and for equal treatment. the christian bible and jewish torah are equally harsh.
    take a look at david or moses and thier military exploits according to gods will....
    or just read most of dueteronomy for a good look at the religions of peace.

    May 10, 2010 at 11:39 pm | Report abuse |
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