Across the Middle East and North Africa, CNN's reporters and iReporters are covering protests, many of them inspired by revolts in Tunisia and Egypt that toppled those countries' longtime rulers. Check out our story explaining the roots of the unrest in each country. Have a story to tell from the scene? Click here to send an iReport.
Developments on unrest in the Middle East and North Africa:
LIBYA 11:45 p.m. ET, 6:45 a.m. local: U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has called on Libya to immediately stop the "unacceptable" attacks on anti-government demonstrators.
"Like you and many others around the world, I have seen very disturbing and shocking scenes, where Libyan authorities have been firing at demonstrators from warplanes and helicopters," Ban said from Los Angeles. "This is
unacceptable. This must stop immediately. This is a serious violation of international humanitarian law."
LIBYA, 11:22 p.m. ET, 6:22 a.m. local: At the request of Libya's deputy ambassador to the United Nations - who earlier today called the crackdown in Libya a "genocide" - the U.N. Security Council scheduled a Tuesday morning meeting on Libya. This will be the first time the council has held consultations over any of the revolts that have swept Arab nations since January.
LIBYA, 11:09 p.m. ET, 6:09 a.m. local: A Libyan woman, speaking on condition of anonymity to CNN's Anderson Cooper, recounts a massacre near her home in Tripoli:
BAHRAIN, 8:51 p.m. ET, 4:51 a.m. local: CNN's Tim Lister reports from Bahrain, where he walked among protesters in the capital's Pearl Roundabout. Thousands of demonstrators were in the roundabout on Monday, preparing for a massive demonstration on Tuesday. Lister says the demonstrators' encampment has taken on an air of permanence, with tents, makeshift kitchens, even a rudimentary field hospital.
More on the Bahrain protests:
LIBYA, 7:40 p.m. ET, 2:40 a.m. local: About 15,000 of Libya's 2 million to 3 million Egyptians returned Monday across the border, border officials said.
The Egyptian military has set up refugee camps near its border with Libya and set up two mobile hospitals at the Salloum border crossing to assist Egyptians fleeing the protests in Libya, Egypt's state-run news website EgyNews
reported late Monday.
LIBYA, 7:33 p.m. ET, 2:33 a.m. local: Here is more on Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi's 40-second appearance - in which he said he still was in Libya - on state-run TV Tuesday morning:
"I want to have some rest," the embattled Libyan leader told a reporter in front of what Libyan television said was his house as he pulled out an umbrella in the rain. "Because I was talking to the young man at Green Square,
and I want to stay the night with them but then it started raining. I want to show them that I am in Tripoli, not in Venezuela. Don't believe those dogs in the media."
Green Square is where pro-government demonstrators in Tripoli have been located.
LIBYA, 6:49 p.m. ET, 1:49 a.m. local: Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi said Tuesday morning on state-run television that he is not in Venezuela as rumored, but in Tripoli.
Earlier today, British Foreign Secretary William Hague told Reuters that Libyan leader Gadhafi may have been on his way to Venezuela.
Here is video of Gadhafi's comments to Libyan state-run TV:
LIBYA, 6:46 p.m. ET, 1:46 a.m. local: CNN's Cairo bureau chief Ben Wedeman has entered eastern Libya and is the first western television reporter to enter and report from inside Libya during the current crisis. He says much of eastern Libya appears to be in opposition control.
"What we saw as we were driving in is that this part of eastern Libya is clearly under the controls of the rebels - the forces that are opposed to Col. Gadhafi," Wedeman by phone on CNN's "The Situation Room."
"We saw along the road a lot of groups of men with shotguns - with machine guns - in civilian clothing. They call themselves basically the popular committees that are trying to maintain some sort of order along the way.
"Clearly the situation is very unstable. What we saw was that there are a lot of people â€“ mostly Egyptians â€“ who are leaving Libya at the moment. At the Egyptian border we were told by Egyptian officials that 15,000 Egyptian s left Libya, returning to Egypt."
"There are some signs of normal life. Gas stations are open. Stores are open. We saw â€¦ what looked like kebab shops that are functioning. There is a fair amount of traffic on the road, although I was told that was mostly Egyptians leaving the country."
LIBYA, 6:35 p.m. ET, 1:35 a.m. local: Libyan state TV is reporting that Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi is to speak soon.
LIBYA, 6:28 p.m. ET, 1:28 a.m. local: Ali Al Oujli, Libya's ambassador to the United States, said earlier today that he urges protesters in Libya "to keep momentum alive."
"If they they keep the momentum in the Libyan streets, (then) theyâ€™ll reach their goals. ... They have a very good experience on what happening in Egypt and what happening in Tunisia. And they should not compromise."
LIBYA, 6:22 p.m. ET, 1:22 a.m. local: Earlier today, this blog reported that Ibrahim Dabbashi, Libya's deputy ambassador to the United Nations, told reporters Monday that Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi has declared war on the Libyan people and is committing genocide.
Below is video of those comments. Dabbashi was speaking in reference to reports that the Libyan military was firing on protesters.
LIBYA, 6:07 p.m. ET, 1:07 a.m. local: A formerly pro-government newspaper in Libya is reporting that African mercenaries are shooting at unarmed civilians in Tajouraa, 25 miles east of Tripoli. The newspaper Quryna's perspective has changed since protests in Libya began.
CNN could not immediately confirm the report. The Libyan government maintains tight control on communications and has not responded to repeated requests from CNN for access to the country.
LIBYA, 5:32 p.m. ET, 12:32 a.m. local: The United States on Monday condemned the violence in Libya and called for a halt to the "unacceptable bloodshed" in response to civil unrest, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said in a statement.
"The government of Libya has a responsibility to respect the universal rights of the people, including the right to free expression and assembly," Clinton's statement said.
LIBYA, 5:29 p.m. ET, 12:29 a.m. local: Saif al-Islam al-Gadhafi, the son of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, told the Libyan state news agency that the Libyan armed forces have not targeted protesters in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libyan state television reported Monday.
Al-Gadhafi said the bombardments targeted ammunition storage facilities in remote areas.
Earlier, a U.S. official not authorized to speak publicly told CNN that Libya has used "aviation assets" to attack protesters on the outskirts of Tripoli.
In the following video, CNN's Ivan Watson, reporting from Egypt, talks about these allegations that Libya used aviation assets to attack protesters.
LIBYA, 5:21 p.m. ET, 12:21 a.m. local: Libya has used "aviation assets" to attack protesters on the outskirts of Tripoli, a U.S. official not authorized to speak publicly told CNN Monday.
The official could not be more specific about the "assets," but the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, an opposition group, said helicopter gunships have fired into crowds of protesters.
A Libyan diplomatic source has denied the Libyan air force was conducting air raids against protesters in Libya.
LIBYA, 4:54 p.m. ET, 11:54 p.m. local: Video on YouTube shows what CNN is told are six badly burned bodies of Libyan soldiers in open body bags. Opposition sources in Libya say the bodies are of soldiers who refused to shoot at anti-government demonstrators. The video, taken on a cell phone, was posted on Monday; it is not known when it was taken.
Read this post for more information and to see the video.
LIBYA, 4:31 p.m. ET, 11:31 p.m. local: A woman in Tripoli, speaking on condition of anonymity, reports seeing people shooting - in an apparently random fashion - from cars. "I've seen myself red Hyundai cars with tinted windows that had armed people inside it shooting random people," she told CNN in a telephone interview. "Three victims have fallen in the street where I live."
CNN could not independently confirm this report. The Libyan government maintains tight control on communications and has not responded to repeated requests from CNN for access to the country. CNN has interviewed numerous witnesses by phone.
LIBYA, 4:25 p.m. ET, 11:25 p.m. local: A Libyan diplomatic source has denied the Libyan air force was conducting air raids against protesters in Libya. Earlier, the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, an opposition group, said helicopter gunships were firing into crowds.
LIBYA, 4:01 p.m. ET, 11:01 p.m. local: The Arab League will hold an urgent summit Tuesday to discuss the recent developments in Libya, Egypt's official news agency MENA reported Monday.
ZIMBABWE, 3:53 p.m. ET: Zimbabwe isn't part of either North Africa or the Middle East, but a recentÂ development there has links to the North African/Middle EasternÂ unrest. Police in Zimbabwe have arrested dozens of political activists and trade union members on suspicion of plotting an Egyptian-style uprising in the southern African country.
BAHRAIN, 3:43 p.m. ET, 11:43 p.m. local: Mass protests planned in Bahrain for Tuesday in support of calls for political reforms coincide with theÂ planned return of Hassan Mushaimaa, who is the leader of Bahrain's largest opposition party, the Haq Movement.
Thousands more people moved into Bahrain's Pearl Roundabout on Monday ahead of Tuesday's planned mass demonstrations. Meanwhile, fallout from last week's violent protests continues. A 20-year-old protester in Bahrain, who was shot in the head on Friday, has died, hospital sources said Monday.
LIBYA, 3:41 p.m. ET, 10:41 p.m. local: CNN is checking reports that helicopters in Libya fired on protesters. The National Front for the Salvation of Libya, an opposition group, has saidÂ helicopter gunships were firing into crowds.
LIBYA, 3:29 p.m. ET, 10:29 p.m. local: Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi still is in Libya, a Libyan diplomatic source told CNN. The source also denied the Libyan air force was conducting air raids against protesters in Libya.
Separately, a senior official in the Italian secret service also said that Gadhafi remains in Libya. Earlier today, British Foreign Secretary William Hague told Reuters that Libyan leader Gadhafi may have been on his way to Venezuela.
SUDAN, 3:24 p.m. ET, 11:24 p.m. local: Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir says he will not run for re-election four years from now, a senior member of the country's ruling National Congress Party announced Monday.
"He will also leave his post as chair of the NCP to allow for the transformation of power to a new generation," said Rabi Abd al-Ati. The senior NCP member rejected the notion that al-Bashir's decision was prompted by popular uprisings in the region, including neighboring Egypt.
LIBYA, 2:15 p.m. ET, 9:15 p.m. local: Two Libyan Air Force pilots defected to Malta on Monday after being asked to bomb Libyan citizens, a Maltese government source said. The pilots' fighter jets were armed with rockets and loaded machine guns, the source said. Malta is a short flight from Libya.
LIBYA, 2:04 p.m. ET, 11:04 p.m. local: Libyan Prime Minister Baghdadi Mahmudi met in Tripoli with ambassadors of the European Union, blaming the unrest in the country on "terrorists and destructive plans" and stressing that Libya has the right to "take any measures" to protect its unity, stability, people and resources, Libyan state television reported.
LIBYA, 1:19 p.m. ET, 8:19 p.m. local: Libyan helicopter gunships are firing into crowds of protesters, according to the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, an opposition group. CNN was unable to confirm the report independently.
LIBYA, 12:45 p.m. ET, 7:45 p.m. local: Oil company Total says it will evacuate most of its expatriate employees and their families from Libya. Shell said it has temporarily relocated the families of expatriate staff.
LIBYA, 12:30 p.m. ET, 7:30 p.m. local: The U.S. State Department has ordered family members of U.S. Embassy employees and non-emergency personnel to leave Libya.
LIBYA, 12:26 p.m. ET, 7:26 p.m. local: Ibrahim Dabbashi, Libya's deputy ambassador to the United Nations, told reporters that Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi has declared war on the Libyan people and is committing genocide. Who is Gadhafi?
YEMEN, 12:17 p.m. ET, 8:17 p.m. local: Two human rights organizations, including Human Rights Watch, are reporting that 12 people have died as a result of protests in Yemen.
LIBYA, 12:02 ET, 7:02 p.m. local: British Foreign Secretary William Hague told Reuters that Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi may be on his way to Venezuela. CNN has not confirmed. Gadhafi has maintained power in the country for 42 years.Â The Libyan ambassador to the UK, Omar Jelban, is denying that Gadhafi is on his way to Venezuela.
LIBYA, noon ET, 7 p.m. local: U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon had talked with Gadhafi, saying he was deeply concern about the violence, and that it must stop. At least 233 people have been killed in the protests, according to Human Rights Watch. Its report cites information from hospital sources. CNN is not able to independently confirm the figure, as the network has not been granted access to report on the ground.
Google has designed this map of protests based on what it calls "reliable tweets." Personal up-to-the-minute audio reports have been uploaded on Google here. CNN has not yet vetted these reports.
LIBYA, 11:45 a.m. ET, 6:45 p.m. local The government is demanding that citizens cooperate with security forces, and warning "organized gangs," Libyan state television reported, as security forces conduct raids on what it called "nests of terror and sabotage." Libya's justice minister, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, has resigned to protest the "bloody situation and use of excessive force" against protesters by security forces, a Libyan newspaper reported. Meanwhile, two Libyan fighter jets have landed in Malta, according to journalists at the airport.
YEMEN, 11 a.m. ET, 7 p.m. local: It is the 11th day of protests. More than 3,500 gathered in the capital Sanaa for a peaceful demonstration, but violence broke out in Aden as police fired on demonstrators. CNN's Mohammed Jamjoom reports what the Yemeni government doesn't want anyone to see.
Journalists were not allowed entry into hospitals where wounded students were taken, and Jamjoom shows you how difficult it is for reporters to get the truth about what youths have been calling their movement. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh refuses to step down and compared anti-government protests in his country to the flu spreading through the region. "This is a virus and is not part of our heritage or the culture of the Yemeni people," he told reporters.
LIBYA, 11 a.m. ET, 6 p.m. local: As reports streamed of protesters setting fire to a government building in Libya's capital and ransacking state TV headquarters, questions swirled around Gadhafi and whether he could be the third Arab leader toppled by the wave of protests rippling through the region. His son, Saif al-Islam Gadhafi, is trying to defend the family dynasty, warning on state television of "a fierce civil war" if the demonstrations don't halt. Who is the Western educated son of Gadhafi? What could Libya's uprising mean in the long term, CNN commentator Kirk Vandewalle asks. He wrote "A History of Modern Libya."
Here's a Monday morning breifing on protests in some of the nations in the region:
IRAQ - Unlike other nations, protests here have not targeted the government. Demonstrators are enraged by corruption, the quality of basic services and high unemployment. Most recently, on Sunday, A 17-year-old boy died and 39 people were injured were injured as demonstrators battled Kurdish security forces in Sulaimaniya in northern Iraq, officials said. CNN's Reza Sayah reports from Islamabad, Pakistan, on the violence. Masked gunmen attacked and burned an independent television station in Iraq's Kurdistan region Sunday, wounding a guard, police officials and the broadcast company said.
ALGERIA - Protests began in January over escalating food prices, high rates of unemployment and housing issues, and iReporters were there. Rallies started in Algiers, but spread to other cities as more people joined. Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced that he would lift the state of emergency law in what analysts said was an attempt to head off a similar revolt.
DJIBOUTI - Protesters in Djibouti are angry about the economy. The country is home to Camp Lemonnier, the only U.S. military base on the African continent. Protesters have called for President Ismail Omar Guelleh - whose family has ruled the country since its independence from France in 1977 - to step down ahead of the elections scheduled in April.
JORDAN - Jordan's economy is struggling as commodity prices rise and youth unemployment is high, as it is in Egypt. Its king has called for swift reform.
KUWAIT - Protests are relatively new, beginning over the weekend. Demonstrators, who want greater rights for longtime residents who are not citizens, attacked security forces late last week.
SUDAN - Protesters are demanding an end to National Congress Party rule and government-imposed price increases. A "Day of Rage" was reportedly organized on Facebook against the government, but it failed to materialize. Human Rights Watch says authorities used "excessive force" during largely peaceful protests on January 30 and 31 in Khartoum and other northern cities. Witnesses said that several people were arrested, including 20 who remain missing.
TUNISIA - An uprising in Tunisia prompted autocratic President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to leave the country on January 14, after weeks of demonstrations. Those demonstrations sparked protests around North Africa and the Middle East.
PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES - Hundreds of Palestinians rallied for unity in Ramallah, calling on Hamas, Fatah and other Palestinian political factions to heal their rifts amid arguments over elections scheduled for September in the Palestinian territories. "Division generates corruption," was one of several slogans written on banners held up by the demonstrators Thursday, who flooded the streets after calls went out on social networking sites, as well as schools and university campuses, for them to attend.
SYRIA - As protests heated up around the region, the Syrian government pulled back from a plan to withdraw some subsidies that keep the cost of living down in the country. President Bashar al-Assad also gave a rare interview to Western media, telling The Wall Street Journal last month that he planned reforms that would allow local elections and included a new media law and more power for private organizations.
Wonderful picture of Gadhafi in the headlines! đź™‚
looks like he ate some tainted goat meat and got the runs.....gadhafi, come out , come out wherever you are..there's a drone seeking you...
That's a face only a mother could love. . . and that's asking a lot.
Obama is the instigator of all the recent 'democracy' unrest - when you have democracy, everything is possible and good things happen! As the US president, Obama is the ultimate testimony.
In a sense, Obama is like Reagan - there is no need to invade Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, etc. to spread democracy like dumb Bush/Cheney/Rumsfeld led you to believe.
This is why we have the Second Amendment.
unrelated: soldier's killed for not firing on protesters.
His face is as ugly as his heart.
How come no one has mentioned that Reagan bombed Gaddafi's home in 1986 and killed his baby daughter. Crimes against humanity today, same crimes agains an innocent baby girl 24 years ago.
"The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants."
– I hope the people of Libya persevere. Freedom is worth it!
Best way to describe a dik head : )
This lowest form of life won't see too many more sunrises or sunsets.
The people of Libya are standing strong, very "Clint E." They're saying to the freak in charge, "Ah, go ahead!! Make my day!!!
To all the MEturn folks that want freedom...now that you have your chance...study all the different countries that are free. Find the best one you like and go for it!
I'm from beautiful Ameri ca. The L and of the F ree, and the Home of the B rave. We support you in your new f reedom way of life. JUST REMEMBER: NOTHING CAN DEFEAT FREEDOM....NOTHING!
Down w. all the AS-Hole s. Just leave and go away. Everyone is better off without a bunch of AS-holes running things.
Can't everyone just be nice and get along? Geez!!!
Lord Daffy will be no longer soon. Whatever deals you had that released that terrorist from Scotland are through. Kiss that goodbye too!!
Obama reminds me of president Carter. Carter lost Iran, but gained Egypt as an ally.
How will history judge Obama?
Why did Obama engineer a coup against Mubarak but is SILENT on Libya?
Abandoned the Green movement to Iranian thugs in June of 2009.
Ronald Reagan may not have been as smart as Obama, but he knew two things:
(a) Who are his friends, and (b) Who are his enemies.
Why has Obama forgotten?
This is wrong, to kill unarmed pepole, it is horrible and to murder your own soliders because they will not kill the pepole they swore to defend. pepole should have the right to stand in with they belive in, I am tired of his happening we can be better then this.
It is times like these that it hurts my heart to be human
I knew the leaders of these countries were bad news, but I had no idea it was this bad. Burning soldiers that refuse to fire on their own citizens, and then showing videos of it, dear God! In the U.S., we just take it for granted that people can speak their mind without being killed. Maybe we were a bit naive up until now. Anyway, the main role of the U.S. is to keep insisting that all sides remain peaceful. If we have any leverage with the leaders of these countries to back that up, now is the time to use it. But I suspect any leverage the U.S. has is meaningless if those leaders are being forced out of power and persecuted by their people. So the U.S. may also want to guarantee some type of security for the ousted leaders to get them to step down peacefully.
About the US being "free to speak your mind" you might want to research the extreme number of deaths of 911 witnesses that claimed their was something fishy about the official story of the 911 attacks. Your only free in the US if you tow the party line.
No Rave Dave, you were just not listening to it when Bush was President. Sadaam was even more evil than Moammar. It's just now there is a Black President so everyone is willing to take a good look at what the rest of the world is really like now.
Europe should be putting more pressure on Lybia than us. Remeber that almost 80% of thier oil output goes directly to Europe; it is sad that european countries always leave the dirty work to us. For those individuals thinking we should not interfere on international issues affecting other countries and their human rights, please remember that as world's primary leader we have a responsibility with those suffering and struggling with criminal regimes as Lybia and others.
europe???? What about Obama??? we should be using dronestrike against them asap
I'm not sure who exactly "we" is according to your post – US or Europe... but personally as a US citizen I don't consider our nation world leaders nor do I think we should be meddling in other nations affairs. I wish them the best dealing with their internal problems but we have enough of our own, including our own corrupt corporate owned government, a collapsing economy and insurmountable debt. It's also interesting that whenever the states DOES anything muslims everywhere burn US flags, yet were also supposed to be the police at the same time – no thanks I opt out.
WHAT?!? Nothing about Gadhafi's Facebook page???
Some of these things are sadly not surprising but truly disturbing. If it feels like this just to read about it, I can't even imagine what the people in these countries are going through. I wish them well, although I fear that is meaningless at this point...
Suck it up, Mo! You won't be there for too much longer ~
What the hell kind of video was that? Gadafi is a nut-case... and so are ALL of his wack-job sons. Alright, Obama, now's your chance to show what the U.S. stands for... ditto on Europe: England, Italy, France and Germany. Do the right thing or you will be faced with the same energy of freedom in your/our countries. The existence of nation-states DO NOT supercede the Inherent Right of each and every individual on this planet to be Free and Sovereign. Alright people, time to call and email your Senators, your Representatives and your President... first thing in the morning!
Gadhafi: "I'm still here AND still insane."
If America wants to win the hearts and minds of Muslim people this is the time.America must use all it's power to bring down the government of this dangerous criminal and thug called Gadhafi, even if it means attacking Libyan Army.Genocide must stop in Libya
Americans are considered imperialists by Muslims for overthrowing saddam Hussain and his evil sons – and it would be wise for us to repeat this for what reason?? I wish you Libyans the best dealing with your dictator, but I don't think the US should be the world police and apparently for the most part your people agree with that.
Figure out your own problems. I think a lot of American's are tired of helping countries out and then getting blamed for all the problems once there. Or....let the whiney Euro's step up for once.
"I agree, If Mr. Obama blows this one, he will lose any trust he ever had in the Muslim world. I sincerely believe that this is his last chance to do something right in that part of the world."
USA for the Muslims always – damned if you do and damned if you don't
I think that the US getting in the way of these budding Democracies is the worst thing we could do. Without us, it is an organic movement by a self-determining people towards greater individual liberty...with us, it is a US backed puppet government. Stay away until the dust clears, and then make friends, if possible, with whomever the people of those countries pick.
Lybia has been under the rule of this criminal for 40+ yrs a high percentage of people fighting against the regime has never lived in freedom as we know it. For what i hear and watch on the news, they are requesting a new government elected by the people to represent them and not just an autocrat. Any similarity with democracy is mere coincidence...
Europe should impose a freeze on Lybian oil exports and force additional economic meassures until the criminal steps down. Remember the old sayin "...It's the economy stupid..." these days it is not necessary to send troops to pressure autocratic governments for changes...You are all welcome
What must be done:
#1. The U.N. must declare a no-fly zone over Libya and send troops to Libya. If Libya violates the no-fly, shoot them down;
#2. England, Germany, France, Italy and the rest of Europe... who receive 79% of Libya's oil... must find their oil elsewhere until Ghadafi and his nut-case sons are arrested on genocide and crimes against the people;
#3. The Libyan people are to have free and fair elections monitored by the international community without fear from reprisal and violence;
#4. President Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton state in no uncertain terms that the massacre of the Libyan people is unacceptable and a violation of human rights.
You are an idiot. Who is gonna fly the planes. YOU? go back to lady gaga
Who will bw the most resilient Tenor ?
Somewhere in the world is a convenient island we could put these falling dictators on, all together, and let them slaughter each other as they battle for control. Anyone know of such an island? Nothing fancy.
i cant believe why the united states not paying attention as it should be to lybian people.this dictato rwho killed hundreds in lockerbie bombing.now is killing his own with military planes and mercenaries...wake up america.lets us be on the right side of the history.we will be always judged for the good and the bad actions .lets usa lead international intervention.we helped kosovo.rowanda...and many. i beg you america all these revolutions are about democracy and freedom.
We are paying attention. We want him to get that noose tight around his neck first.
The muslim world should take care of this mess.
A No-Fly Zone needs to be established over the country to prevent civilians from being bombed / attacked by gunships and fighter jets. I would suggest pressuring the Egyptian Air Force in taking on this role in exchange for a transfer of a few F-15's / F-16's that are due to be mothballed here at home.