Kids slain at Connecticut school were 6, 7
December 15th, 2012
07:54 PM ET

Kids slain at Connecticut school were 6, 7

    • 20 children, six adults and the shooter are dead after shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, on Friday morning
    • Three law enforcement officials say Adam Lanza, 20, was the shooter, and that he died apparently by his own hand
    • Law enforcement officials say Lanza killed his mother, Nancy, at her Newtown home before going to the school
    • Victims' names released Saturday; all of the slain children were either 6 or 7 years old
    • Complete coverage: Connecticut school shooting

[Updated at 7:54 p.m. ET] Peter Lanza, father of alleged gunman Adam Lanza, released a statement Saturday expressing condolences to the families of victims.

"Our family is grieving along with all those who have been affected by this enormous tragedy. No words can truly express how heartbroken we are. We are in a state of disbelief and trying to find whatever answers we can," said the statement.

[Updated at 7:26 p.m. ET] U.S. President Barack Obama will go to Newtown on Sunday to meet with victims' families and first responders in the evening, the White House says.

He'll also speak at an interfaith vigil for the school's families. The vigil is scheduled for 7 p.m. ET Sunday.

[Updated at 7:12 p.m. ET] People are gathered outside Stratford (Connecticut) High School, for a vigil in honor of Victoria Soto, a 27-year-old first-grade teacher who was slain in Newtown.

Soto graduated from the Stratford high school in 2003.

[Updated at 6:22 p.m. ET] Earlier reports that the suspected shooter, Adam Lanza, had an altercation with four adults at the school on Thursday have been investigated and are not accurate, according to a law enforcement source with knowledge of the investigation.

Lt. J. Paul Vance of the Connecticut State Police noted in a news conference Saturday that he knew of no reports about Lanza being involved in any altercations at the school.

[Updated at 6:20 p.m. ET] Nancy Lanza’s brother James Champion, a law enforcement officer in New Hampshire, didn’t deliver a statement as expected. Instead, the sheriff of Rockingham County, New Hampshire, delivered a statement on the Champion family’s behalf:

“The family of Nancy Lanza share the grief of a community and the nation as we struggle to comprehend the tremendous loss that we all share. Our hearts and prayers are with those who share in this loss: their families, teachers, staff and the students of Sandy Brook Elementary school, the first responders, and to all others touched by this tragedy. On behalf of Nancy’s mother and siblings, we reach out to the community of Newtown and express our heartfelt sorrow for the incomprehensible and profound loss of innocence that has affected so many.

“The family requests that you respect their privacy during his time of anguish and loss.”

The chief of police in Kingston, New Hampshire, said that Nancy Lanza lived in Kingston for a good part of her life and was a "very, very kind, considerate, loving young lady."

"She was very involved in the community and very well respected."

[Updated at 5:51 p.m. ET] An uncle of suspect Adam Lanza, is expected to address reporters in the next few minutes in New Hampshire.

The uncle is brother of Adam Lanza's mother, Nancy Lanza. Law enforcement officials say Adam Lanza killed Nancy Lanza in her Newtown home before the shootings at the school.

[Updated at 5:39 p.m. ET] Here are the names of those killed at the school, as provided by state police. is publishing the full names of children only when parents have spoken publicly:

Charlotte, 6; Daniel, 7; Rachel Davino, 29; Olivia, 6; Josephine, 7; Ana, 6; Dylan, 6; Dawn Hochsprung, 47; Madeleine, 6; Catherine, 6; Chase, 7; Jesse, 6; James, 6; Grace, 7; Anne Marie Murphy, 52; Emilie Parker, 6; Jack, 6; Noah, 6; Caroline, 6; Jessica, 6; Avielle, 6; Lauren Rousseau, 30; Mary Sherlach, 56; Victoria Soto, 27; Benjamin, 6; Allison, 6.

[Updated at 5:38 p.m. ET] In a tearful talk with reporters, Robbie Parker, the 30-year-old father of 6-year-old Emilie Parker, who died in the shooting, said she was an exceptional artist who delighted in making cards and drawing pictures for people who needed an emotional lift.

"She always had a kind thing to say about everybody," he said. "I'm so blessed to be her dad."

He was teaching her Portuguese, and the last conversation he had with her - on Friday morning - was in that language, he said.

"She told me 'good morning' and asked how I was doing, and I said I was doing well," he said. Emilie told him she loved him, and they kissed before they left the home Friday morning, he said.

[Updated at 5:33 p.m. ET] Robbie Parker, the father of one of the victims - a 6-year-old girl - told reporters that she was "always smiling" and would, if she were alive, be one of the first people offering comfort to the relatives of the victims.

He thanked everyone who was offering condolences, and he offered his own to others who are suffering - including the family of the suspected shooter, Adam Lanza.

"I can’t imagine how hard this experience must be to you," Parker said, referring to the Lanza family.

He said his 6-year-old daughter was the "best friend" to her two younger sisters, and was teaching one of them to read.

"They looked to her when they needed comfort," Parker said. "Usually that's saved for a mom and a dad, but it was sweet to see ... how they would run to (her) for support and hugs and kisses.”

[Updated at 5:08 p.m. ET] "There will be time soon for a discussion of public policy issues surrounding yesterday’s events," Connecticut Gov. Dannel Malloy said in a televised address, "but what’s important right now is love, courage, and compassion."

"Love," he said, "as it has poured in from around the world.

"Courage, as it was demonstrated by the teachers and other adults in the school building, whose actions no doubt saved lives.

"Courage on display, as it always is, by all our first responders.

"Compassion, as shown by people around Connecticut who’ve arrived in Newtown wanting only to help."

[Updated at 4:39 p.m. ET] All of the slain children were either 6 or 7 years old, according to information released by state police. There were 12 girl victims; eight boys. All of the adults killed were women.

[Updated at 4:13 p.m. ET] The victims at the school ranged in age from 6 to 56, according to information released by state police.

Eighteen of the victims at the school were described as female; eight were male. Twenty-six people died at the school, excluding the gunman. Twenty were children; six were adults.

[Updated at 4:11 p.m. ET] More on what the state's chief medical examiner told reporters minutes ago in Newtown: He said the "long weapon" was used in the shooting, and that the weapon caused all of the wounds that he knew of.

He didn't say what that weapon was, but a law enforcement source has previously said that the gunman was found dead with next to three guns: a semi-automatic .223-caliber Bushmaster rifle and two pistols made by Glock and Sig Sauer.

The medical examiner, H. Wayne Carver II, said he personally did postmortem examinations of seven victims' bodies.

“All the wounds that I know of at this point were caused by the one weapon,” Carver said.

[Updated at 3:58 p.m. ET] State police have released a list of those killed. More on that to come.

[Updated at 3:55 p.m. ET] The state's chief medical examiner says he believes all of the victims were shot more than once.

The medical examiner, H. Wayne Carver II, speaking at a news conference in Newtown, said that all of the victims died of gunshot wounds, and the manner of death was homicide. The seven bodies he examined personally had three to 11 wounds each, he said.

“I believe everyone was hit more than once,” Carver said.

Postmortem examinations have been performed on all of the children; examinations of most of the adult bodies will be finished by this evening, Carver said.

Examinations of the bodies of Adam Lanza and his mother will be performed Sunday, Carver said. Lanza died at the school; his mother was killed at her home in Newtown, authorities have said.

Police said a list of the victims' names would soon be published.

[Updated at 3:26 p.m. ET] Victoria Soto and Lauren Rousseau, both teachers at the school, are among the dead, according to friends and family members.

Earlier, CNN reported that princial Dawn Hochsprung and school psychologist Mary Sherlach were among the killed.

Although authorities have identified all of those killed, they have yet to release a formal list of names.

[Updated at 3:06 p.m. ET] Investigators say they believe Adam Lanza tried to buy a gun at Dick's Sporting Goods in Danbury on Tuesday, but was unsuccessful, a law enforcement source with knowledge of the investigation told CNN's Susan Candiotti.

Employees at the store - some 12 miles from Sandy Hook Elementary - have been interviewed and have searched the store's surveillance cameras for evidence that Lanza had been there.

Also, a second law enforcement source has said that Lanza was involved in some kind of trouble at the school earlier this week. The source said the altercation was between Lanza and four adults, and occurred Thursday, the day before the shooting.

Three of those adults, the source added, were killed during Friday's shooting.

The source was unable to say whether the disagreement took place inside or outside the school, but said that it apparently had something to do with him trying to enter the school.

(Update, 6:22 p.m. ET - Reports that Adam Lanza, had an altercation with four adults at the school on Thursday have been investigated and are not accurate, according to a law enforcement source with knowledge of the investigation. Also, Lt. J. Paul Vance of the Connecticut State Police noted in a news conference Saturday that he knew of no reports about Vance being involved in any altercations at the school.)

[Updated at 1:36 p.m. ET] Connecticut Gov. Dannel Malloy is expected to make a live, televised statement about the shooting, addressed to Connecticut residents, at 5 p.m.

[Updated at 1:12 p.m. ET] Investigators have been told that Adam Lanza had some sort of altercation with some people at the school a few days before the shooting, a law enforcement official told CNN's Carol Cratty. The official did not know the nature of the altercation or who was involved in it with Lanza.

[Updated at 11:59 a.m. ET] Adam Lanza tried to buy a gun in the area Tuesday before the shooting, a law enforcement source said, according to CNN's Susan Candiotti.

The Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives said it is contacting shooting ranges and gun stores in the area to try to establish whether Lanza sought to purchase guns or practice using them.

[Updated at 11:50 a.m. ET] The gunman had access to more guns than the three found at the elementary school, a law enforcement source told CNN's Susan Candiotti.

Police recovered three additional guns elsewhere. They are a .45-caliber Henry repeating rifle, a .22-caliber Marlin rifle, and a .30-caliber Enfield rifle, the source said.

[Updated at 10:28 a.m. ET] The victims have been positively identified by the chief state medical examiner, state police spokesman Lt. J. Paul Vance said in a press conference Saturday morning. The medical examiner is expected to release their names and birth dates in the next few hours.

It appears that the assailant "forced his way into the school," Vance said. Detectives continue to investigate the crime scene and will remain there for at least another day or two, Vance said. So far, investigators looking for a motive have found "some very good evidence," that will help them paint a complete picture of how and why this happened, he said.

The home of a woman believed to be the gunman's mother is also being investigated. After killing his mother, investigators believe the gunman took her guns and made his way to the elementary school.

Help for victims of Sandy Hook shooting

[Updated at 10:13 a.m. ET] The victims' bodies have been transported to the Office of the Chief State's Medical Examiner, where a post mortem examination will be conducted to determine manner and cause of death, the Connecticut State Police said in press release.

[Updated at 10 a.m. ET] Friday's shooting has sparked passionate nation conversation on a variety of issues, from school safety and gun control to mental health treatment. In a heated discussion, CNN's Piers Morgan and guests debate the need for stricter gun control laws in America.

Updated at 8:45 a.m. ET] The suspect in the shooting may have had access to at least five guns, a law enforcement official with direct knowledge of the investigation said Saturday.

Three weapons were recovered from the school on Friday: a semi-automatic .223 caliber rifle made by Bushmaster found in a car in the school parking lot, and two pistols made by Glock and a Sig Sauer found with suspected gunman Adam Lanza's body, a law enforcement source said previously.

[Updated at 8:26 a.m. ET] Pope Benedict XVI expressed "his heartfelt grief and the assurance of his closeness in prayer to the victims and their families and all to affected" by the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, in a letter to the Diocese of Bridgeport Administrator Monsignor Jerald A. Doyle.

[Updated at 4:50 a.m. ET] Father William Hamilton, a volunteer chaplain for 30 years with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives in New England said the Connecticut school shootings is the worse thing he's seen in his years counseling responders and victims’ families. “It’s beyond the scope of imagination. Parents are not supposed to have to bury their children," Hamilton told CNN. "This is the Christmas season. This season will never ever be the same for these families. It will over time perhaps get better, but it will always be a part of their history.”

[Updated at 1:30 a.m. ET]  A  family member of suspected shooter Adam Lanza told investigators that he had a form of autism, according to a law enforcement official, who spoke under condition of anonymity due to the sensitive nature of the investigation.

[Updated at 12:30 a.m. ET]  Despite earlier reports that said she was a teacher, Nancy Lanza, the suspect's mother, was not a teacher at the school where the killings took place, said Janet Vollmer, a kindergarten teacher at Sandy Hook Elementary School. Not much is known about the suspect's mother or the suspect Adam Lanza.  In September 2009 - when Adam Lanza was 17 - his mother and father divorced, court documents show. What happened after that for him, what caused the shootings that has shocked the nation, isn't clear.

[Updated at 11:18 p.m. ET] Aimee Seaver, the mother of a first-grade girl at Sandy Hook and a fifth-grader who attends a different school, told CNN's Anderson Cooper that her children are having trouble dealing with what happened.

"It's a very rough night here," she said. "When your first-grader goes to bed and says, 'Mommy, is anyone from my class last year - are they all OK?' and you look at them and say, 'I'm not really sure,' it's a rough night to tell that to your 7-year-old."

Her younger daughter has asked a lot of questions about Principal Dawn Lafferty Hochsprung, who was killed.

“She got wind very quickly that something was wrong with our principal, which we didn’t tell her till just now that yes, she was definitely hurt and it wasn’t good," Seaver said. "It’s taking her a while. I think tomorrow will probably be harder for her.

“I also have a fifth-grader who came off the bus crying because she … had a sister who she was worried about, and … just basically left that school a few months ago. I think for a lot of those kids, they kind of are a little older and can get it a little bit faster, even though they weren’t in it.

“So the questions, I think, are coming. They’re not here, yet, especially for the littler ones. It started as I put them to bed tonight, the questions.”

[Updated at 10:50 p.m. ET] Janet Vollmer, a kindergarten teacher at the school, says she locked her classroom doors and - to keep her students calm - read them a story until the police came.

Vollmer, her 19 students and the adult helpers in her classroom were not injured.

"You could hear what sounded like pops, gunshots. Of course, I’m not going to tell that to 5-year-olds, so I said to them, ‘We’re going over in a safe area,'" Vollmer told CNN's Anderson Cooper. "And we read a story and we kept them calm, did a lockdown drill, closed the doors, locked (them), covered the windows, and kept the children with us.”

She said the children knew something unusual was going on.

“It didn’t seem a natural thing (to the children), although we do practice drills," Vollmer said. "We said, ‘We’re not really sure, but we’re going to be safe, because we’re sitting over here and we’re all together.’”

soundoff (1,251 Responses)
  1. Raya

    CNN, I am watching the news now. Why is there so much focus on the shooter and his family? Please do not think about your ratings and feed morbid curiosity. We need to focus on the lives on the victims and celebrate them. I find it chilling that as you were giving us intimate details about Jake Tyler Roberts, the shooter in Oregon just a few days ago, that Adam Lanza was probably thinking how he would be glorified soon in a smilier fashion, as he planned his evil acts. And god forbid, another psychopath isn't watching your coverage now and hoping to be remembered for murdering innocents. Please, I urge you to report responsibly.

    December 15, 2012 at 6:38 pm | Report abuse |
    • khalid ebrahim

      thats a very smart point u r right

      December 15, 2012 at 6:49 pm | Report abuse |
  2. Peter

    It is time to decide as a nation what is more important to us: protecting our guns or our children.

    December 15, 2012 at 6:39 pm | Report abuse |
    • Carter

      Use your head

      December 15, 2012 at 8:26 pm | Report abuse |
  3. athath

    So is this event also part of "god's plan"??

    December 15, 2012 at 6:40 pm | Report abuse |
    • emory gayle

      Yes, he's just a really poor planner apparently. Maybe it's just one of his "mysterious ways."

      December 15, 2012 at 7:03 pm | Report abuse |
  4. khalid ebrahim

    guns restriction will surely decrease the incidence of these heart -breaking crimes. god bless the victems and their families and friends

    December 15, 2012 at 6:43 pm | Report abuse |
    • Mark

      Never has, never will.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:01 pm | Report abuse |
  5. Nery Sanchez

    The Republicans protect Gun Rights + the Democrats Protect Legalizing Marijuana = Connecticut

    December 15, 2012 at 6:43 pm | Report abuse |
  6. Ethics Board

    "semi-automatic rifle"... that's for defending against a hoard of wild deer while out hunting... right?

    December 15, 2012 at 6:46 pm | Report abuse |
    • Mark

      No, that's for defending against other semi-auto rifles. You are the one who brings a knife to a gunfight.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:00 pm | Report abuse |
  7. Ryan

    Simple solution while also respecting the second amendment- When crimes like this occur, the person who sold the gun is also responsible for the crime and is on the hook for life in prison. Let's see how keen people will be on selling guns then.

    December 15, 2012 at 6:46 pm | Report abuse |
    • bubba

      It is more simple than that. Everyone that is against gun ownership on one side, and gun owners on the other. Then we will have a war and the winners decide on gun policy.

      December 15, 2012 at 6:53 pm | Report abuse |
    • Mark

      Idiotic statement.

      December 15, 2012 at 6:57 pm | Report abuse |
    • St Andre

      No one sold this nut the guns he used, they were his mothers guns. Keep in mind, guns have been around the entire USA existance, this mass killing with guns only started about 20 years ago. It's ultimately the parents fault for not giving a damn about their childrens upbringing.

      December 15, 2012 at 6:58 pm | Report abuse |
    • georgina

      St Andre, read up on your history. Mass killings have been around since the American extremist founders massacred the natives, then enslaved the blacks, then invaded other countries, and on and on.

      December 15, 2012 at 9:09 pm | Report abuse |
  8. Corinna Davies

    How many tragedies must take place before the mentally ill get the help they need and DESERVE?! RIP to the victims...

    December 15, 2012 at 6:48 pm | Report abuse |
    • me

      Why do you generalize mentally ill people?

      December 15, 2012 at 6:59 pm | Report abuse |
    • Gabino Casanova

      I fear for the school safety system. There will be cut backs on school funds due to our economy. Congress and Senate can not agree on funds and the longer they take to decide it creates a window of missied children being wrong diagnois mentally. Health cuts for mentally ill. Cap on mental insurance and pre-existing condition. One of the biggest factors is testing anxiety where students drop out or can not graduate. If these students do not have a job or follow a dream or goals they end up going the wrong way. Schools only have 1 or 2 mental doctors. We need to fix our school system where everyone has a skill when they graduate and a job to go too. May God Help Us!

      December 15, 2012 at 7:09 pm | Report abuse |
    • Donnie the Lion

      We won't help them because we won't spend the money....and we won't spend the money because sadly, as a nation, we just don't care that much until it affects us directly.

      We play the lottery with our safety because we tend to be lazy and irresponsible and greedy.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:10 pm | Report abuse |
    • Denise

      Amen! Mental health is the REAL issue here. Everybody is pointing to other countries with stricter gun laws that have less gun violence, which is great but, has anyone looked into their mental health services provided to their youth? I bet if you did you would find that they can get the help for their childern, if needed, without paying $30,000.00 a month for in house care. Who can afford that? Yes, guns are deadly, so are a lot of things. But deadliest of them all are mentally ill that go undiagnoised, untreated and unsupervised. They are the true ticking time bombs. If it is not guns, it will be something else. Count on it. Our children and young adults need our help.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:21 pm | Report abuse |
  9. Susan R

    Banning guns is not the answer. The common thread to mass killings and other heinous crimes seems to be mental illness. If you are intent on killing someone/people, you will find a way to do it, whether or not you have access to guns. There are always signs before these killings, and everyone's afraid to say, "Hey, something's not right with this guy/girl." See something, say something. Quit trying to be so politically correct. Call a spade a spade and let's get better monitoring of folks with mental illness. Better and swifter avenues to report odd behavior. Yes, we may have some people crying wolf, but if it can save someone's life, isn't it worth it?

    December 15, 2012 at 6:49 pm | Report abuse |
    • Jeff

      Uh, no..LOL. A criminally insane person wouldn't have been able to recognize their actions were wrong, this guy knew what he was doing, had premeditated his actions for days, tried to buy a gun on Tuesday and was denied, and in the end shot himself. A criminally insane person wouldn't have shot them self, because they would not be able to understand their would be consequences for their actions. so basically, all you're doing is advocating discrimination against those who might seek help, but now be afraid too get help, because of overly hysterical nut cases, like yourself.

      December 15, 2012 at 6:59 pm | Report abuse |
    • Donnie the Lion

      But isn't it true that in that multiple stabbing incident in China, none of the victims died? You can shoot and kill someone with an automatic rifle without even looking at them. Makes it SO easy....perhaps too easy. Give a guy a hunting knife to kill 20 kids with, maybe he'll still do it.....but it takes more emotional and psychological commitment.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:02 pm | Report abuse |
    • mariah

      "call a spade a spade".... that's some really effective word choice, you go, glenn coco. but seriously.... mental illness is a very complicated and personal issue, and mental illness with no gun is still just mental illness. why must guns be so easily accessible that we must face, time after time again, these massive shootings? without a highly deadly and readily available means of making a giant mistake, the mentally ill would be more likely to receive the care they need while innocent people remain unharmed.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:12 pm | Report abuse |
    • Jack

      killer will find ways to kill but guns make it easy to kill. During same time in china a man tried to kill children with knife but all children survived but wounded..imagine same guy in china had access to gun, it would have been the same result..WE NEED TO BAN GUNS PERIOD..

      December 15, 2012 at 7:16 pm | Report abuse |
    • St Andre

      As to Jacks comment. Banning guns period? If you find yourself in danger, why call the cops, coz guns would be banned. Unless you think cops armed with harsh language would save you. Do you think cops can be everywhere, protect all 315 million US cictizens at once. Your obviously not a deep thinker. Guns have been around the entire USA existence, mass killings only started about 20 years ago. Figure it out.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:44 pm | Report abuse |
  10. Joan Dark

    The tragedy is nearly impossible to reconcile with it is difficult to understand why the 6-7 yr olds had to experience such hatred during the Holiday seasons. What's next doing drivebyes in peoples homes. I couldn't imagine a crisis like that, while there opening presents an all. This is just inconceivable!

    December 15, 2012 at 6:51 pm | Report abuse |
  11. bubba

    I bet you do not know what a Semi-Automatic is.

    December 15, 2012 at 6:51 pm | Report abuse |
    • Joan Dark

      Maybe homeschooling could be an option but then society has to deal with what is learned at home, an for some that isn't a pretty sight. If the children are being raised in a hostile environment, positively accustomed to be negative, what example are they setting for their peers?

      December 15, 2012 at 7:31 pm | Report abuse |
  12. aggie7214

    Just listening to network news – now they are quoting officials as saying that all the victims were shot with a rifle. Funny, I remember all the reports up until this afternoon saying they were shot with a handgun or multiple handguns and they found the rifle in the shooter's car – I even remember seeing video of the police taking it out of the shooter's car. So what changed? How could the shooter have shot his victims with a rifle if it was in his car? Sounds like someone is trying to distort the facts to to further their political agenda.

    December 15, 2012 at 6:52 pm | Report abuse |
    • Greg faith

      God Bless America! Until the rapture! Then we are all screwed!

      December 15, 2012 at 7:02 pm | Report abuse |
    • Donnie the Lion

      The medical examiner made that statement...why would he throw away decades of credibility by lying?

      December 15, 2012 at 7:04 pm | Report abuse |
  13. Mimi

    As a former Psychiatric Art Therapist, Art Therapy is an excellent way for these children to express themselves and heal. Children are much more image oriented than adults. I hope this avenue will be open to them.

    December 15, 2012 at 6:55 pm | Report abuse |
  14. wolf blitzer

    the problem is we are are all mentally damaged goods.
    we all have a mental problem. you know the truth and so do I.

    i also do and I work at cnn

    December 15, 2012 at 6:55 pm | Report abuse |
    • Jeff

      Exactly, if you're an actual living-breathing member of society, you're damaged goods.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:02 pm | Report abuse |
  15. honey2000

    The chief of police in Kingston, New Hampshire, said that Nancy Lanza lived in Kingston for a good part of her life and was a "very, very kind, considerate, loving young lady."

    "She was very involved in the community and very well respected."


    December 15, 2012 at 6:59 pm | Report abuse |
    • Donnie the Lion

      That is a question we all have and hope to have answered. It obviously didn't help her protect herself.

      December 15, 2012 at 7:08 pm | Report abuse |
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42